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Exodus 1:13

    Exodus 1:13 Translations

    King James Version (KJV)

    And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigour:

    American King James Version (AKJV)

    And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigor:

    American Standard Version (ASV)

    And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigor:

    Basic English Translation (BBE)

    And they gave the children of Israel even harder work to do:

    Webster's Revision

    And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigor:

    World English Bible

    The Egyptians ruthlessly made the children of Israel serve,

    English Revised Version (ERV)

    And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigour:

    Clarke's Commentary on Exodus 1:13

    To serve with rigour - בפרך bepharech, with cruelty, great oppression; being ferocious with them. The word fierce is supposed by some to be derived from the Hebrew, as well as the Latin ferox, from which we more immediately bring our English term. This kind of cruelty to slaves, and ferociousness, unfeelingness, and hard-heartedness, were particularly forbidden to the children of Israel. See Leviticus 25:43, Leviticus 25:46, where the same word is used: Thou shalt not rule over him with Rigor, but shalt fear thy God.