on Hebrews 5 :10
Called of God a high priest - Προσαγορευθεις· Being constituted, hailed, and acknowledged to be a high priest. In Hesychius we find προσαγορευει, which he translates ασπαζεται· hence we learn that one meaning of this word is to salute; as when a man was constituted or anointed king, those who accosted him would say, Hail king! On this verse Dr. Macknight has the following note, with the insertion of which the reader will not be displeased: "As our Lord, in his conversation with the Pharisees, recorded Matthew 22:43, spake of it as a thing certain of itself, and universally known and acknowledged by the Jews, that David wrote the 110th Psalm by inspiration, concerning the Christ or Messiah; the apostle was well founded in applying the whole of that Psalm to Jesus. Wherefore, having quoted the fourth verse, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec, as directed to Messiah, David's Lord, he justly termed that speech of the Deity a salutation of Jesus, according to the true import of the word προσαγορευθεις, which properly signifies to address one by his name, or title, or office; accordingly Hesychius explains προσαγορευομαι by ασπαζομαι. Now, that the deep meaning of this salutation may be understood, I observe, First, that, by the testimony of the inspired writers, Jesus sat down at the right hand of God when he returned to heaven, after having finished his ministry upon earth; Mark 16:19; Acts 7:56; Hebrews 1:3; Hebrews 8:1; 1 Peter 3:22. Not, however, immediately, but after that he had offered the sacrifice of himself in heaven, by presenting his crucified body before the presence of God; Hebrews 1:3; Hebrews 10:10. Secondly, I observe, that God's saluting Messiah a priest after the order of Melchisedec, being mentioned in the psalm after God is said to have invited him to sit at his right hand, it is reasonable to think the salutation was given him after he had offered the sacrifice of himself; and had taken his seat at God's right hand. Considered in this order, the salutation of Jesus, as a priest after the order of Melchisedec, was a public declaration on the part of God that he accepted the sacrifice of himself, which Jesus then offered, as a sufficient atonement for the sin of the world, and approved of the whole of his ministrations on earth, and confirmed all the effects of that meritorious sacrifice, And whereas we are informed in the psalm that, after God had invited his Son, in the human nature; to sit at his right hand as Governor of the world, and foretold the blessed fruits of his government, he published the oath by which he made him a Priest for ever, before he sent him into the world to accomplish the salvation of mankind; and declared that he would never repent of that oath: The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent; Thou art a Priest for ever after the similitude of Melchisedec. It was, in effect, a solemn publication of the method in which God would pardon sinners; and a promise that the effects of his Son's government as a King, and of his ministrations as a Priest, should be eternal; see Hebrews 6:20. Moreover, as this solemn declaration of the dignity of the Son of God, as a King and a Priest for ever in the human nature, was made in the hearing of the angelical hosts, it was designed for this instruction, that they might understand their subordination to God's Son, and pay him that homage that is due to him as Governor of the world, and as Savior of the human race; Philippians 2:9, Philippians 2:10; Hebrews 1:6. The above explanation of the import of God's saluting Jesus a Priest for ever, is founded on the apostle's reasonings in the seventh and following chapters, where he enters into the deep meaning of the oath by which that salutation was conferred."
on Hebrews 5 :10
Called of God - Addressed by him, or greeted by him. The word used here does not mean that he was "appointed" by God, or "called" to the office, in the sense in which we often use the word, but simply that he was "addressed" as such, to wit, in Psalm 110:1-7;
An high priest - In the Septuagint Psalm 110:4, and in Hebrews 5:6, above, it is rendered "priest" - ἱερεύς hiereus - but the Hebrew word - כהן kohēn - is often used to denote the high priest, and may mean either; see Septuagint in Leviticus 4:3. Whether the word "priest," or "high priest," be used here, does not affect the argument of the apostle. "After the order of Melchizedek." see the notes at Hebrews 5:6.
on Hebrews 5 :10
5:10 Called - The Greek word here properly signifies surnamed. His name is, the Son of God. The Holy Ghost seems to have concealed who Melchisedec was, on purpose that he might be the more eminent type of Christ. This only we know, - that he was a priest, and king of Salem, or Jerusalem.