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Isaiah 65:4

    Isaiah 65:4 Translations

    King James Version (KJV)

    Which remain among the graves, and lodge in the monuments, which eat swine's flesh, and broth of abominable things is in their vessels;

    American King James Version (AKJV)

    Which remain among the graves, and lodge in the monuments, which eat swine's flesh, and broth of abominable things is in their vessels;

    American Standard Version (ASV)

    that sit among the graves, and lodge in the secret places; that eat swine's flesh, and broth of abominable things is in their vessels;

    Basic English Translation (BBE)

    Who are seated in the resting-places of the dead, and by night are in the secret places; who take pig's flesh for food, and have the liquid of disgusting things in their vessels.

    Webster's Revision

    that sit among the graves, and lodge in the secret places; that eat swine's flesh, and broth of abominable things is in their vessels;

    World English Bible

    who sit among the graves, and lodge in the secret places; who eat pig's flesh, and broth of abominable things is in their vessels;

    English Revised Version (ERV)

    which sit among the graves, and lodge in the secret places; which eat swine's flesh, and broth of abominable things is in their vessels;

    Definitions for Isaiah 65:4

    Swine - Pigs.

    Clarke's Commentary on Isaiah 65:4

    Which remain among the graves - "For the purpose of evoking the dead. They lodged in desert places that demons might appear to them; for demons do appear in such places, to those who do believe in them." - Kimchi.

    In the monuments "In the caverns" - בנצורים bannetsurim, a word of doubtful signification. An ancient MS. has בצורים batstsurim, another בצרים batstsurim, "in the rocks;" and Le Clec thinks the Septuagint had it so in their copy. They render it by εν τοις στηλαιοις, "in the caves."

    Which eat swine's flesh - This was expressly forbidden by the law, Leviticus 11:7, but among the heathen was in principal request in their sacrifices and feasts. Antiochus Epiphanes compelled the Jews to eat swine's flesh, as a full proof of their renouncing their religion, 2 Maccabees 6:18 and 7:1. "And the broth of abominable meats," for lustrations, magical arts, and other superstitious and abominable practices.

    In their vessels - For כליהם keleyhem, a MS. had at first בכליהם bichleyhem. So the Vulgate and Chaldee, (and the preposition seems necessary to the sense), "in their vessels."

    Barnes' Notes on Isaiah 65:4

    Which remain among the graves - That is, evidently for purposes of necromancy and divination. They do it to appear to hold converse with the dead, and to receive communications from them. The idea in necromancy was, that departed spirits must be acquainted with future events, or at least with the secret things of the invisible world where they dwelt, and that certain persons, by various arts, could become intimate with them, or 'familiar' with them, and, by obtaining their secrets, be able to communicate important truths to the living. It seems to have been supposed that this acquaintance might be increased by lodging in the tombs and among the monuments, that they might thus be near to the dead, and have more intimate communion with them (compare the notes at Isaiah 8:19-20). It is to be recollected, that tombs among the ancients, and especially in Oriental countries, were commonly excavations from the sides of hills, or frequently were large caves. Such places would furnish spacious lodgings for those who chose to reside there, and were, in fact, often resorted to by those who had no houses, and by robbers (see Matthew 8:28; Mark 5:3).

    And lodge in the monuments - Evidently for some purpose of superstition and idolatry. There is, however, some considerable variety in the exposition of the word rendered here 'monuments,' as well as in regard to the whole passage. The word rendered 'lodge' (ילינוּ yâliynû), means properly to pass the night, and refers not to a permanent dwelling in any place, but to remaining over night; and the probability is, that they went to the places referred to, to sleep - in order that they might receive communications in their dreams from idols, by being near them, or in order that they might have communication with departed spirits. The word rendered 'monuments' (נצוּרים netsûrı̂ym) is derived from נצר nâtsar, to watch, to guard, to keep; then to keep from view, to hide - and means properly hidden recesses; and dark and obscure retreats. It may be applied either to the adyta or secret places of pagan temples where their oracles were consulted and many of their rites were performed; or it may be applied to sepulchral caverns, the dark and hidden places where the dead were buried. The Septuagint renders it, 'They sleep in tombs and in caves (ἐν τοῖς σπηλαίοις en tois spēlaiois) for the purpose of dreaming' (διὰ ἐνύπνια dia enupnia); in allusion to the custom of sleeping in the temples, or near the oracles of their gods, for the purpose of obtaining from them communications by dreams. This custom is not unfrequently alluded to by the ancient writers. An instance of this kind occurs in Virgil:

    - huc dona sacerdos

    Cum tulit, et caesarum ovium sub nocte silenti

    Pellibus incubuit stratis, somnosque petivit:

    Multa modis simulacra videt volitantia miris,

    Et varias audit voces, fruiturque Deorum,

    Colloquio, atque imis Acheronta affatur Avernis.

    AEaeid, vii. 86-91.

    'Here in distress the Italian nations come,

    Anxious to clear their doubts and earn their doom;

    First on the fleeces of the slaughter'd sheep,

    By night the sacred priest dissolves in sleep;

    When in a train before his slumbering eye,

    continued...

    Wesley's Notes on Isaiah 65:4

    65:4 Remain - They remained among the graves, there consulting with devils, who were thought to delight in such places; or to practice necromancy, all which were forbidden, Deut 18:11 Isa 8:19. Monuments - Some interpret it of idol temples, some of caves and dens, in which the Heathens used to worship their idols. Broth of abominable things - Of such flesh as was to the Jews unclean by the law.