on Leviticus 7 :38
In the wilderness of Sinai - These laws were probably given to Moses while he was on the mount with God; the time was quite sufficient, as he was there with God not less than fourscore days in all; forty days at the giving, and forty days at the renewing of the law. As in the course of this book the different kinds of sacrifices commanded to be offered are repeatedly occurring, I think it best, once for all, to give a general account of them, and a definition of the original terms, as well as of all others relative to this subject which are used in the Old Testament, and the reference in which they all stood to the great sacrifice offered by Christ.
1. אשם Asham, Trespass-offering, from אשם asham, to be guilty, or liable to punishment; for in this sacrifice the guilt was considered as being transferred to the animal offered up to God, and the offerer redeemed from the penalty of his sin, Leviticus 7:37. Christ is said to have made his soul an offering for sin, (אשם), Isaiah 53:10.
2. אשה Ishsheh, Fire-offering, probably from אשש ashash, to be grieved, angered, inflamed; either pointing out the distressing nature of sin, or its property of incensing Divine justice against the offender, who, in consequence, deserving burning for his offense, made use of this sacrifice to be freed from the punishment due to his transgression. It occurs Exodus 29:18, and in many places of this book.
3. הבהבים Habhabim, Iterated Or Repeated offerings, from יהב yahab, to supply. The word occurs only in Hosea 8:13, and probably means no more than the continual repetition of the accustomed offerings, or continuation of each part of the sacred service.
4. זבח Zebach, A Sacrifice, (in Chaldee, דבח debach, the ז zain being changed into ד daleth), a creature slain in sacrifice, from זבח zabach, to slay; hence the altar on which such sacrifices were offered was termed מזבח mizbeach, the place of sacrifice. See Clarke's note on Genesis 8:20. Zebach is a common name for sacrifices in general.
5. חג Chag, a festival, especially such as had a periodical return, from חגג chagag, to celebrate a festival, to dance round and round in circles. See Exodus 5:1; Exodus 12:24. The circular dance was probably intended to point out the revolution of the heavenly bodies, and the exact return of the different seasons. See Parkhurst.
6. חטאת Chattath and חטאה Chattaah, Sin-offering, from חטא chata, to miss the mark; it also signifies sin in general, and is a very apt term to express its nature by. A sinner is continually aiming at and seeking happiness; but as he does not seek it in God, hence the Scripture represents him as missing his aim, or missing the mark. This is precisely the meaning of the Greek word ἁμαρτια, translated sin and sin-offering in our version; and this is the term by which the Hebrew word is translated both by the Septuagint and the inspired writers of the New Testament. The sin-offering was at once an acknowledgment of guilt, in having forsaken the fountain of living waters, and hewed out cisterns that could hold none; and also of the firm purpose of the offerer to return to God, the true and pure fountain of blessedness. This word often occurs. See Clarke's note on Genesis 4:7. See Clarke's note on Genesis 13:13.
7. כפר Copher, the Expiation or Atonement, from כפר caphar, to cover, to smear over, or obliterate, or annul a contract. Used often to signify the atonement or expiation made for the pardon or cancelling of iniquity. See Clarke's note on Exodus 25:17.
8. מועד Moed, an Appointed annual festival, from יעד yaad, to appoint or constitute, signifying such feasts as were instituted in commemoration of some great event or deliverance, such as the deliverance from Egypt. See Exodus 13:10, and thus differing from the chag mentioned above. See Clarke's note on Genesis 1:14.
9. מלאים Milluim, Consecrations or consecration-offerings, from מלא mala, to fill; those offerings made in consecrations, of which the priests partook, or, in the Hebrew phrase, had their hands filled, or which had filled the hands of them that offered them. See Clarke's note on Exodus 29:19; and see 2 Chronicles 13:9.
10. מנחה Minchah, Meat-offering, from נח nach, to rest, settle after toil. It generally consisted of things without life, such as green ears of corn, full ears of corn, flour, oil, and frankincense; (see on Leviticus 2:1 (note), etc.); and may be considered as having its name from that rest from labor and toil which a man had when the fruits of the autumn were brought in, or when, in consequence of obtaining any rest, ease, etc., a significant offering or sacrifice was made to God. It often occurs. See Clarke's note on Genesis 4:3. The jealousy-offering (Numbers 5:15) was a simple minchah, consisting of barley-meal only.
11. מסך Mesech and ממסך Mimsach, a Mixture-offering, or Mixed Libation, called a Drink-offering, Isaiah 55:11, from מסך masach, to mingle; it seems in general to mean old wine mixed with the less, which made it extremely intoxicating. This offering does not appear to have had any place in the worship of the true God; but from Isaiah 65:11, and Proverbs 23:30, it seems to have been used for idolatrous purposes, such as the Bacchanalia among the Greeks and Romans, "when all got drunk in honor of the god."
12. משאת Masseeth, an Oblation, things carried to the temple to be presented to God, from נשא nasa, to bear or carry, to bear sin; typically, Exodus 28:38; Leviticus 10:17; Leviticus 16:21; really, Isaiah 53:4, Isaiah 53:12. The sufferings and death of Christ were the true masseeth or vicarious bearing of the sins of mankind, as the passage in Isaiah above referred to sufficiently proves. See this alluded to by the Evangelist John, John 1:29 (note); and see the root in Parkhurst.
13. נדבה Nedabah, Free-Will, or voluntary offering; from נדב nadab, to be free, liberal, princely. An offering not commanded, but given as a particular proof of extraordinary gratitude to God for especial mercies, or on account of some vow or engagement voluntarily taken, Leviticus 7:16.
on Leviticus 7 :38
wilderness of Sinai - Compare Exodus 19:1.
on Leviticus 7 :38