on Psalms 83 :7
Gebal - The Giblites, who were probably the persons here designed, were a tribe of the ancient inhabitants of the land of Canaan, and are mentioned as unconquered at the death of Joshua, Joshua 13:5. They are called stone-squarers or Giblites, 1 Kings 5:18, and were of considerable assistance to Hiram king of Tyre, in preparing timber and stones for the building of the temple. They appear to have been eminent in the days of Ezekiel, who terms them the "ancients of Gebal, and the wise men - thereof," who were ship-builders, Ezekiel 27:3. What is now called Gibyle, a place on the Mediterranean Sea, between Tripoli and Sidon, is supposed to be the remains of the city of the Giblites.
Ammon and Moab were then descendants of the children of Lot. Their bad origin is sufficiently known. See Genesis 19:30, etc. Calmet supposes that Ammon is put here for Men or Maon, the Meonians, a people who lived in the neighborhood of the Amalekites and Idumeans. See the notes on 2 Chronicles 20:1; 2 Chronicles 26:7.
Amalek - The Amalekites are well known as the ancient and inveterate enemies of the Israelites. They were neighbors to the Idumeans.
The Philistines - These were tributaries to Jehoshaphat, 2 Chronicles 17:11; but it seems they took advantage of the present times, to join in the great confederacy against him.
The inhabitants of Tyre - These probably joined the confederacy in hopes of making conquests, and extending their territory on the main land.
on Psalms 83 :7
Gebal - The Gebal here referred to was probably the same as Gebalene, the mountainous tract inhabited by the Edomites, extending from the Dead Sea southward toward Petra, and still called by the Arabs Djebal. (Gesenius, Lexicon) The word means mountain. Those who are here referred to were a part of the people of Edom.
And Ammon - The word Ammon means son of my people. Ammon was the son of Lot by his youngest daughter, Genesis 19:38. The Ammonites, descended from him, dwelt beyond the Jordan in the tract of country between the streams of Jabbok and Arnon. These also would be naturally associated in such a confederacy. 1 Samuel 11:1-11.
And Amalek - The Amalekites were a very ancient people: In the traditions of the Arabians they are reckoned among the aboriginal inhabitants of that country. They inhabited the regions on the south of Palestine, between Idumea and Egypt. Compare Exodus 17:8-16; Numbers 13:29; 1 Samuel 15:7. They also extended eastward of the Dead Sea and Mount Seir Numbers 24:20; Judges 3:13; Judges 6:3, Judges 6:33; and they appear also to have settled down in Palestine itself, whence the name the Mount of the Amalekites, in the territory of Ephraim, Judges 12:15.
The Philistines - Often mentioned in the Scriptures. They were the ancient inhabitants of Palestine, whence the name Philistia or Palestine. The word is supposed to mean the land of sojourners or strangers; hence, in the Septuagint they are uniformly called ἀλλοφύλοι allophuloi, those of another tribe, strangers, and their country is called γῆ ἀλλοφύλων gē allophulōn. They were constant enemies of the Hebrews, and it was natural that they should be engaged in such an alliance as this.
With the inhabitants of Tyre - On the situation of Tyre, see the Introduction to Isaiah 23. Why Tyre should unite in this confederacy is not known. The purpose seems to have been to combine as many nations as possible against the Hebrew people, and - as far as it could be done - all those that were adjacent to it, so that it might be surrounded by enemies, and so that its destruction might be certain. It would not probably be difficult to find some pretext for inducing any of the kings of the surrounding nations to unite in such an unholy alliance. Kings, in general, have not been unwilling to form alliances against liberty.
on Psalms 83 :7
83:7 Gebal - An Arabian people so called by ancient writers dwelling in the southern border of Canaan, where most of the people here mentioned had their abode.