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Romans 5:14

    Romans 5:14 Translations

    King James Version (KJV)

    Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come.

    American King James Version (AKJV)

    Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come.

    American Standard Version (ASV)

    Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the likeness of Adam's transgression, who is a figure of him that was to come.

    Basic English Translation (BBE)

    But still death had power from Adam till Moses, even over those who had not done wrong like Adam, who is a picture of him who was to come.

    Webster's Revision

    Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the likeness of Adam's transgression, who is a figure of him that was to come.

    World English Bible

    Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those whose sins weren't like Adam's disobedience, who is a foreshadowing of him who was to come.

    English Revised Version (ERV)

    Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the likeness of Adam's transgression, who is a figure of him that was to come.

    Definitions for Romans 5:14

    Similitude - A likeness; image; representation.
    Transgression - Wrong-doing; a violation of a law.

    Clarke's Commentary on Romans 5:14

    Nevertheless, death reigned from Adam to Moses - This supposes, as Dr. Taylor very properly observes: -

    1. That sin was in the world from Adam to Moses.

    2. That law was not in the world from Adam to Moses during the space of about 2500 years; for, after Adam's transgression, that law was abrogated; and, from that time, men were either under the general covenant of grace given to Adam or Noah, or under that which was specially made with Abraham.

    3. That, therefore, the sins committed were not imputed unto them to death, for they did not sin after the similitude of Adam's transgression; that is, they did not, like him, transgress a law, or rule of action, to which death, as the penalty, was annexed. And yet -

    4. Death reigned over mankind during the period between Adam and Moses; therefore men did not die for their own transgressions, but in consequence of Adam's one transgression.

    Who is the figure of him that was to come - Adam was the figure, τυπος, the type, pattern, or resemblance of him who was to come; i.e. of the Messiah. The correspondence between them appears in the following particulars: -

    1. Through him, as its spring and fountain, sin became diffused through the world, so that every man comes into the world with sinful propensities: for by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, Romans 5:12. Through Christ, as its spring and fountain, righteousness becomes diffused through the earth; so that every man is made partaker of a principle of grace and truth; for he is the true light that lighteth every man that cometh into the world, John 1:9.

    2. As in Adam all die; so in Christ shall all be made alive, 1 Corinthians 15:22. For, since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead, 1 Corinthians 15:21.

    3. As in or through Adam guilt came upon all men, so, through Christ, the free gift comes upon all men unto justification of life, Romans 5:18. These alone seem to be the instances in which a similitude exists between Adam and Christ.

    Barnes' Notes on Romans 5:14

    Nevertheless - Notwithstanding that sin is not imputed where there is no law, yet death reigned.

    Death reigned - People died; they were under the dominion of death in its various melancholy influences. The expression "death reigned" is one that is very striking. It is a representation of death as a monarch; having dominion over all that period, and overall those generations. Under his dark and withering reign people sank down to the grave. We have a similar expression when we represent death as "the king of terrors." It is a striking and affecting personification, for.

    (1) His reign is absolute. He strikes down whom he pleases, and when he pleases.

    (2) there is no escape. All must bow to his sceptre, and be humbled beneath his hand,

    (3) it is universal. Old and young alike are the subjects of his gloomy empire.

    (4) It would be an eternal reign if itwere not for the gospel.

    It would shed unmitigated woes upon the earth; and the silent tread of this terrific king would produce only desolation and tears forever.

    From Adam to Moses - From the time when God gave one revealed law to Adam, to the time when another revealed Law was given to Moses. This was a period of 2500 years; no inconsiderable portion of the history of the world. Whether people were regarded and treated as sinners then, was a very material inquiry in the argument of the apostle. The fact that they died is alleged by him as full proof that they were sinners; and that sin had therefore scattered extensive and appalling woes among people.

    Even over them - Over all those generations. The point or emphasis of the remark here is, that it reigned over those that had sinned under a different economy from that of Adam. This was what rendered it so remarkable; and which showed that the withering curse of sin had been felt in all dispensations, and in all times.

    After the similitude ... - In the same way; in like manner. The expression "after the similitude" is an Hebraism, denoting in like manner, or as. The difference between their case and that of Adam was plainly that Adam had a revealed and positive law. They had not. They had only the law of nature, or of tradition. The giving of a law to Adam, and again to the world by Moses, were two great epochs between which no such event had occurred. The race wandered without revelation. The difference contemplated is not that Adam was an actual sinner, and that they had sinned only by imputation. For,

    (1) The expression "to sin by imputation" is unintelligible, and conveys no idea.

    (2) The apostle makes no such distinction, and conveys no such idea.

    (3) His very object is different. It is to show that they were actual sinners; that they transgressed law; and the proof of this is that they died.

    (4) It is utterly absurd to suppose that people from the time of Adam to Moses were sinners only by imputation. All history is against it; nor is there the slightest ground of plausibility in such a supposition.

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